What is an example of a hydrocarbon
Apr 14, †Ј Examples of hydrocarbons. Methane (CH 4). A gas with a repulsive odor, highly flammable, present in the atmosphere of the large gaseous planets and as a product in ours from the decomposition of organic matter or product of mining activities. Ethane (C 2 H 6). Highly flammable gas of which they constitute natural gas and capable of producing freezing in contact with organic tissues. Examples of Hydrocarbons: 1. Natural gas and fuels - Many of the natural fuel sources we use are hydrocarbons. Compounds like methane, butane, propane, and hexane are all hydrocarbons. Their chemical formulas consist of only carbon and hydrogen atoms, in a variety of ratios and chemical configurations. 2.
A hydrocarbon is an organic compound comprising two carbon elements and one hydrogen element. Benzene, paraffin, and methane, for example, are hydrocarbons. We can find hydrocarbons in natural gas, crude oil, coal, and plant life. The simplest hydrocarbon is methane. Methane consists of one carbon atom with four hydrogen atoms stuck to it. We yhdrocarbon hydrocarbons as solvents hyrdocarbon fuels.
We also use them as raw materials for pesticides, plastics, dyes, rubbers, explosives, and hundreds of different products. In fact, hhdrocarbon, from which we get diesel and gasoline UK: petrolis a mixture of many different hydrocarbons.
According to Britannica. Hydrocarbons are htdrocarbon principal constituents of petroleum and natural gas. Without hydrocarbons, our current oil economy would not exist. In fact, without hydrocarbons, we would not exist and neither would any life on Earth. When the air contains less than 0.
Most hydrocarbons we find naturally occur in crude oil. There are three main sources of natural hydrocarbons: petroleum, coal, and natural gas. Apart from being present in fossil fuels, they also exist naturally in plants. Green leaves and carrots, for example, contain carotene. Carotene, a red or orange plant pigment, is a terpenoid hydrocarbon. In outer space, the largest hydrocarbon molecules are amino acids.
On Earth, however, those amino acids hooked up with each other to create protein molecules. Protein molecules are present in every living cell on Earth. Therefore, all living cells are made out of hydrocarbons. Our bodies, fishes, trees, seaweed, cheese, and milk, are the result of hydrocarbons. In fact, anything that lives or once lived is made from hydrocarbons.
Therefore our food, as well as rubber, alcohol, and even antibiotics contain hydrocarbons. We group hydrocarbon into homologous series or families. There are five main homologous groups. In each family, the hydrocarbons have a general formula and similar chemical properties. They behave in similar ways. The five families are:.
An isomer is a molecule with the same molecular formula of another molecule. However, the isomer has a different chemical structure. Hydrocarbon Ч definition and examples A hydrocarbon is an organic compound comprising two carbon elements and one hydrogen element. According to SoftSchools. Interestingly, though, hydrocarbons once combined also form bonds with other atoms in order to create organic compounds.
A protein molecule, in fact, may include hundreds of amino acids in many different combinations. Hydrocarbons come in many forms Hydrocarbons can be: Gasessuch as propane or methane. Liquidsincluding benzene or hexane. Waxes or Low-Melting Solidssuch as naphthalene and paraffin wax. Polymersincluding polystyrene, polypropylene, and polyethylene. A polymer is a macromolecule, i. Hydrocarbon presence in living cells Protein molecules are present in every living cell on Earth.
Hydrocarbon families We group hydrocarbon into homologous series or families. The five families are: Alkanes Of all the hydrocarbons, alkanes how to sew a zipper on a pillow case the simplest. Alkadienes have two carbon to carbon double exammple. Video Ч Hydrocarbon overview This Khan Academy video explains what hydrocarbons are.
Types of hydrocarbons
Sep 13, †Ј Examples: Methane (CH4), ethane (C2H6), propane (C3H8) and butane (C4H10) are all saturated hydrocarbons because they contain only carbon-carbon single bonds. General formula: The general formula of saturated hydrocarbons is CnH2n+2 where n is the number of carbon atoms in one molecule of the alkanes. Unsaturated hydrocarbons. Mar 17, †Ј The three types of aliphatic hydrocarbons are alkanes, alkenes, and alkynes. Aromatic hydrocarbons include benzene. Overall, examples of hydrocarbons are methane, ethane, propane, and butane. The hydrocarbons contain only hydrogen and carbon. They provide the simplest examples of how catenation, combined with carbonТs valence of 4, gives rise to a tremendous variety of molecular structures, even with only two elements involved. Single bonded hydrocarbons are called alkanes. A example of an alkane is butane.
Hydrocarbon , any of a class of organic chemical compounds composed only of the elements carbon C and hydrogen H. The carbon atoms join together to form the framework of the compound , and the hydrogen atoms attach to them in many different configurations. Hydrocarbons are the principal constituents of petroleum and natural gas. They serve as fuels and lubricants as well as raw materials for the production of plastics , fibres , rubbers , solvents, explosives , and industrial chemicals.
A hydrocarbon is any of a class of organic chemicals made up of only the elements carbon C and hydrogen H. The carbon atoms join together to form the framework of the compound, and the hydrogen atoms attach to them in many different configurations. They serve as fuels and lubricants as well as raw materials for the production of plastics , fibres , rubbers , solvents , explosives , and industrial chemicals.
Hydrocarbons make up fossil fuels. One of the main by-products of fossil fuel combustion is carbon dioxide CO 2. Atmospheric CO 2 concentrations fluctuated between and parts per million by volume ppmv of dry air between CE and the late 18th century but had increased to ppmv by and rose to ppmv in Thus, the substantial CO 2 increase in the atmosphere is a major contributing factor to human-induced global warming.
Many hydrocarbons occur in nature. In addition to making up fossil fuels , they are present in trees and plants , as, for example, in the form of pigments called carotenes that occur in carrots and green leaves. More than 98 percent of natural crude rubber is a hydrocarbon polymer , a chainlike molecule consisting of many units linked together.
The structures and chemistry of individual hydrocarbons depend in large part on the types of chemical bonds that link together the atoms of their constituent molecules. Nineteenth-century chemists classified hydrocarbons as either aliphatic or aromatic on the basis of their sources and properties. Aromatic hydrocarbons constituted a group of related substances obtained by chemical degradation of certain pleasant-smelling plant extracts.
The terms aliphatic and aromatic are retained in modern terminology, but the compounds they describe are distinguished on the basis of structure rather than origin. Aliphatic hydrocarbons are divided into three main groups according to the types of bonds they contain: alkanes, alkenes, and alkynes. Alkanes have only single bonds, alkenes contain a carbon-carbon double bond, and alkynes contain a carbon-carbon triple bond.
Aromatic hydrocarbons are those that are significantly more stable than their Lewis structures would suggest; i. This classification of hydrocarbons serves as an aid in associating structural features with properties but does not require that a particular substance be assigned to a single class.
Indeed, it is common for a molecule to incorporate structural units characteristic of two or more hydrocarbon families. A molecule that contains both a carbon-carbon triple bond and a benzene ring, for example, would exhibit some properties that are characteristic of alkynes and others that are characteristic of arenes.
Alkanes are described as saturated hydrocarbons, while alkenes, alkynes, and aromatic hydrocarbons are said to be unsaturated. In order of increasing number of carbon atoms, methane CH 4 , ethane C 2 H 6 , and propane C 3 H 8 are the first three members of the series.
Methane, ethane, and propane are the only alkanes uniquely defined by their molecular formula. For C 4 H 10 two different alkanes satisfy the rules of chemical bonding namely, that carbon has four bonds and hydrogen has one in neutral molecules.
One compound, called n - butane , where the prefix n - represents normal, has its four carbon atoms bonded in a continuous chain. The other, called isobutane , has a branched chain. Different compounds that have the same molecular formula are called isomers. Isomers that differ in the order in which the atoms are connected are said to have different constitutions and are referred to as constitutional isomers.
An older name is structural isomers. The compounds n -butane and isobutane are constitutional isomers and are the only ones possible for the formula C 4 H Because isomers are different compounds, they can have different physical and chemical properties. There is no simple arithmetic relationship between the number of carbon atoms in a formula and the number of isomers. The number of constitutional isomers increases sharply as the number of carbon atoms increases.
There is probably no upper limit to the number of carbon atoms possible in hydrocarbons. The alkane CH 3 CH 2 CH 3 , in which carbon atoms are bonded in a continuous chain, has been synthesized as an example of a so-called superlong alkane. Several thousand carbon atoms are joined together in molecules of hydrocarbon polymers such as polyethylene , polypropylene , and polystyrene. The need to give each compound a unique name requires a richer variety of terms than is available with descriptive prefixes such as n - and iso-.
The naming of organic compounds is facilitated through the use of formal systems of nomenclature. Nomenclature in organic chemistry is of two types: common and systematic. Common names originate in many different ways but share the feature that there is no necessary connection between name and structure. The name that corresponds to a specific structure must simply be memorized, much like learning the name of a person. Systematic names, on the other hand, are keyed directly to molecular structure according to a generally agreed upon set of rules.
The most widely used standards for organic nomenclature evolved from suggestions made by a group of chemists assembled for that purpose in Geneva in and have been revised on a regular basis by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry IUPAC.
Compounds in other families are viewed as derived from alkanes by appending functional groups to, or otherwise modifying, the carbon skeleton. Beginning with five-carbon chains, the names of unbranched alkanes consist of a Latin or Greek stem corresponding to the number of carbons in the chain followed by the suffix -ane.
A group of compounds such as the unbranched alkanes that differ from one another by successive introduction of CH 2 groups constitute a homologous series. Alkanes with branched chains are named on the basis of the name of the longest chain of carbon atoms in the molecule, called the parent. The alkane shown has seven carbons in its longest chain and is therefore named as a derivative of heptane, the unbranched alkane that contains seven carbon atoms. The position of the CH 3 methyl substituent on the seven-carbon chain is specified by a number 3- , called a locant , obtained by successively numbering the carbons in the parent chain starting at the end nearer the branch.
The compound is therefore called 3-methylheptane. When there are two or more identical substituents, replicating prefixes di-, tri-, tetra-, etc. Replicating prefixes are ignored when alphabetizing. In alkanes, numbering begins at the end nearest the substituent that appears first on the chain so that the carbon to which it is attached has as low a number as possible.
Methyl and ethyl are examples of alkyl groups. An alkyl group is derived from an alkane by deleting one of its hydrogens, thereby leaving a potential point of attachment. Methyl is the only alkyl group derivable from methane and ethyl the only one from ethane. There are two C 3 H 7 and four C 4 H 9 alkyl groups.
The IUPAC rules for naming alkanes and alkyl groups cover even very complex structures and are regularly updated. They are unambiguous in the sense that, although a single compound may have more than one correct IUPAC name, there is no possibility that two different compounds will have the same name.
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Purdue University - Hydrocarbons. Francis A. Author of Organic Chemistry and others. See Article History. Structures assumed by hydrogen H and carbon C molecules in four common hydrocarbon compounds. Top Questions. Chemical compound. Fossil fuel. They are divided into alkanes, alkenes, and alkynes. Alkanes have only single bonds , alkenes contain a carbon-carbon double bond, and alkynes contain a carbon-carbon triple bond.
Aromatic hydrocarbons make up a group of related substances obtained by chemical breakdown of certain pleasant-smelling plant extracts. They are classified as either arenes, which contain a benzene ring as a structural unit, or as nonbenzenoid aromatic hydrocarbons, which possess special stability but lack a benzene ring.
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