What happened july 14 bastille day
What Actually Happened on the Original Bastille Day
Jul 13, · T he French national holiday of Bastille Day— celebrated each year on July 14, or le quatorze juillet —may spell fireworks and and a large military parade for Author: Emma Ockerman. Jul 12, · Bastille Day is a holiday celebrating the storming of the Bastille—a military fortress and prison—on July 14, , in a violent uprising that helped usher in the French Revolution. Live TV Shows.
T he French national holiday of Bastille Day— celebrated each year on July 14or le quatorze juillet —may spell fireworks and and a large military parade for somebut for most, it still marks the anniversary of the storming of a grand fortress that was infamous for holding political prisoners, during the first moments of the French Revolution in Paris in Their proclamation would form the National Assembly in late June.
Weeks later, after the king removed a finance minister, Jacques Neckerof whom the estate approved, fears that Louis XVI was attempting to quash any political bastilke began to boil.
That hunt for gunpowder— not the hope of freeing prisoners—was the main reason for the storming of the Bastille. The events that followed—the freeing of the few prisoners that remained at the Bastille, but also a deadly battle and the brutal whta of the prison governor and his officers—were more of a side effect happrned chaotic uprising, rather than its intent. The king arrived how to manage economic exposure Paris days later, Edelstein says, to declare his support of the revolution and don the tricolor cockade.
Feudalism was abolished that August. Contact us at letters time. Illustration of the storming of the Bastille prison, in an event that has come to be seen as the start of the French Revolution, 14th July By Emma Ockerman. Get our History Newsletter. Put today's news in context and see highlights from the archives.
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Jul 12, · What happened on July 14 Bastille day. The storming of the Bastille is an event of the French Revolution which took place on 14 July The surrender of the Bastille, a symbol of despotism, was the effect of an earthquake, in France as in Europe, to the distant imperial Russia. “Strength of secret place and without justice, the Bastille was the first event of the Revolution.”. Mar 14, · Bastille Day, in France and its overseas departements and territories, holiday marking the anniversary of the fall on July 14, , of the Bastille, in Paris. Originally built as a medieval fortress, the Bastille eventually came to be used as a state prison. Political prisoners were often held there, as were citizens detained by the authorities for trial. In the morning of the 14 of July, 30, to 50, bourgeois, workmen and shopkeepers march on the Invalides, the veterans hospital, which also comprised a weapons depot. The military governor of the Invalides does not oppose any resistance, and the regiments of Swiss Guards encamped nearby refuse to intervene.
The medieval armory , fortress , and political prison known as the Bastille represented royal authority in the centre of Paris. The prison contained only seven inmates at the time of its storming, but was seen by the revolutionaries as a symbol of the monarchy's abuse of power; its fall was the flashpoint of the French Revolution.
This crisis was caused in part by the cost of intervening in the American Revolution and exacerbated by a regressive system of taxation. On 17 June , the third estate , with its representatives drawn from the commoners, reconstituted themselves as the National Assembly , a body whose purpose was the creation of a French constitution.
The king initially opposed this development but was forced to acknowledge the authority of the assembly, which renamed itself the National Constituent Assembly on 9 July.
The press published the Assembly's debates; political debate spread beyond the Assembly itself into the public squares and halls of the capital. The Palais-Royal and its grounds became the site of an ongoing meeting. The rank and file of the regiment, previously considered reliable, now leaned toward the popular cause.
On 11 July , Louis XVI—acting under the influence of the conservative nobles of his privy council —dismissed and banished his finance minister, Jacques Necker who had been sympathetic to the Third Estate and completely reconstructed the ministry.
News of Necker's dismissal reached Paris on the afternoon of Sunday, 12 July. The Parisians generally presumed that the dismissal marked the start of a coup by conservative elements. Crowds gathered throughout Paris, including more than ten thousand at the Palais-Royal.
Camille Desmoulins successfully rallied the crowd by "mounting a table, pistol in hand, exclaiming: ' Citizens, there is no time to lose; the dismissal of Necker is the knell of a Saint Bartholomew for patriots!
This very night all the Swiss and German battalions will leave the Champ de Mars to massacre us all; one resource is left; to take arms! The Swiss and German regiments referred to were among the foreign mercenary troops who made up a significant portion of the pre-revolutionary Royal Army , and were seen as being less likely to be sympathetic to the popular cause than ordinary French soldiers.
Meanwhile, unrest was growing among the people of Paris who expressed their hostility against state authorities by attacking customs posts blamed for causing increased food and wine prices. That night, rumors spread that supplies were being hoarded at Saint-Lazare, a huge property of the clergy, which functioned as a convent, hospital, school, and even as a jail.
An angry mob broke in and plundered the property,  seizing 52 wagons of wheat, which were taken to the public market. That same day multitudes of people plundered many other places including weapon arsenals. The Royal troops did nothing to stop the spreading of social chaos in Paris during those days. The officers of the French Guards made ineffectual attempts to rally their men. The rebellious citizenry had now acquired a trained military contingent.
As word of this spread, the commanders of the royal forces encamped on the Champ de Mars became doubtful of the dependability of even the foreign regiments. He also commented in retrospect that the officers of the French Guards had neglected their responsibilities in the period before the uprising, leaving the regiment too much to the control of its non-commissioned officers. On the morning of 13 July, the electors of Paris met and agreed to the recruitment of a "bourgeois militia" of 48, men  from the sixty voting districts of Paris, to restore order.
Lafayette was elected commander of this group on 14 July and subsequently changed its name to the National Guard. He added the color white, the color of the King, to the cockade on 27 July, to make the famous French tri-color.
On the morning of 14 July , the city of Paris was in a state of alarm. The commandant at the Invalides had in the previous few days taken the precaution of transferring barrels of gunpowder to the Bastille for safer storage. At this point, the Bastille was nearly empty, housing only seven prisoners:  four forgers ; James F.
Whyte, a "lunatic" imprisoned at the request of his family; Auguste-Claude Tavernier, who had tried to assassinate Louis XV thirty years before; and one "deviant" aristocrat, the Comte de Solages, imprisoned by his father using a lettre de cachet while the Marquis de Sade had been transferred out ten days earlier.
The high cost of maintaining a garrisoned medieval fortress, for what was seen as having a limited purpose, had led to a decision being made shortly before the disturbances began to replace it with an open public space. The regular garrison consisted of 82 invalides veteran soldiers no longer suitable for service in the field.
The official list of vainqueurs de la Bastille conquerors of the Bastille subsequently compiled has names,  and the total of the crowd was probably fewer than one thousand.
A breakdown of occupations included in the list indicates that the majority were local artisans, together with some regular army deserters and a few distinctive categories, such as 21 wine merchants. The crowd gathered outside the fortress around mid-morning, calling for the pulling back of the seemingly threatening cannon from the embrasures of the towers and walls  and the release of the arms and gunpowder stored inside.
The negotiations dragged on while the crowd grew and became impatient. Soldiers of the garrison called to the people to withdraw, but amid the noise and confusion these shouts were misinterpreted as encouragement to enter. The crowd seems to have felt that they had been intentionally drawn into a trap and the fighting became more violent and intense, while attempts by deputies to organise a cease-fire were ignored by the attackers.
A substantial force of Royal Army troops encamped on the Champ de Mars did not intervene. A letter written by de Launay offering surrender but threatening to explode the powder stocks held if the garrison were not permitted to evacuate the fortress unharmed, was handed out to the besiegers through a gap in the inner gate.
He accordingly opened the gates, and the vainqueurs swept in to take over the fortress at pm. Ninety-eight attackers and one defender had died in the actual fighting, a disparity accounted for by the protection provided to the garrison by the fortress walls. Let me die! Launay was then stabbed repeatedly and died. It was a chilling and a horrid sight! Shocked and disgusted at this scene, [we] retired immediately from the streets.
The three officers of the permanent Bastille garrison were also killed by the crowd; surviving police reports detail their wounds and clothing. Two of the invalides of the garrison were lynched, but all but two of the Swiss regulars of the Salis-Samade Regiment were protected by the French Guards and eventually released to return to their regiment.
Their officer, Lieutenant Louis de Flue, wrote a detailed report on the defense of the Bastille, which was incorporated in the logbook of the Salis-Samade and has survived. The king first learned of the storming only the next morning through the Duke of La Rochefoucauld. The duke replied: "No sire, it's not a revolt; it's a revolution. At Versailles the Assembly were for a few hours ignorant of most of the Paris events. The representives remained however concerned that the Marshal de Broglie might still unleash a pro-Royalist coup to force them to adopt the order of 23 June,  and then dissolve the Assembly.
Noailles apparently was first to bring reasonably accurate news of the Paris events to Versailles. By the morning of 15 July, the outcome appeared clear to the king as well, and he and his military commanders backed down. The news of the successful insurrection at Paris spread throughout France. In accord with principles of popular sovereignty and with complete disregard for claims of royal authority, the people established parallel structures of municipalities for civic government and militias for civic protection.
Both had held official positions under the monarchy. On 16 July , two days after the Storming of the Bastille, John Frederick Sackville , serving as ambassador to France, reported to Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs Francis Osborne, 5th Duke of Leeds , "Thus, my Lord, the greatest revolution that we know anything of has been effected with, comparatively speaking—if the magnitude of the event is considered—the loss of very few lives.
From this moment we may consider France as a free country, the King a very limited monarch, and the nobility as reduced to a level with the rest of the nation. About people who claimed to have stormed the Bastille received certificates Brevet de vainqueur de la Bastille from the National Assembly in , and a number of these still exist. The demolition of the fortress itself, the melting down of its clock portraying chained prisoners, and the breaking up of four statues were all carried out within five months.
In , Lafayette gave the wrought-iron, one-pound and three-ounce key to the Bastille to U. President George Washington. Washington displayed it prominently at government facilities and events in New York and in Philadelphia until shortly before his retirement in The key remains on display at Washington's residence of Mount Vernon.
Palloy also took bricks from the Bastille and had them carved into replicas of the fortress, which he sold, along with medals allegedly made from the chains of prisoners. Pieces of stone from the structure were sent to every district in France, and some have been located. The building itself is outlined in brick on the location where it once stood, as is the moat in the Paris Metro stop below it, where a piece of the foundation is also on display.
Media related to Storming of the Bastille at Wikimedia Commons. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Major event of the French Revolution. Arrest of Launay by an unknown artist. Cholat fought on the side of the Revolutionaries during the storming of the Bastille, manning one of their cannon during the battle. Citizens: A Chronicle of the French Revolution , pp. The Fall of the French Monarchy , p. Citizens: A Chronicle of the French Revolution , p.
The French Revolution , p. Batsford Ltd London The Fall of the French Monarchy , pp. Faber and Faber Ltd Le Monde et son Histoire. French Revolutionary Infantry — , p. The French Revolution. Voices From a Momentous Epoch — , p. Charles Scribner's Sons The Wars of the French Revolution and Napoleon — New York: Routledge. Tozzi, p. Retrieved 14 July The Days of the French Revolution.
New York: William Morrow and Co. ISBN Fitchburg State College. Retrieved 22 January A Critical Dictionary of the French Revolution , pp. CN Guild Publishing Sydenham, p.
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